Postgresql Commands


Magic words:
psql -U postgres
If run with `-E` flag, it will describe the underlaying queries of the `\` commands (cool for learning!).

Most `\d` commands support additional param of `__schema__.name__` and accept wildcards like `*.*`

– `\q`: Quit/Exit
– `\c __database__`: Connect to a database
– `\d __table__`: Show table definition including triggers
– `\dt *.*`: List tables from all schemas (if `*.*` is omitted will only show SEARCH_PATH ones)
– `\l`: List databases
– `\dn`: List schemas
– `\df`: List functions
– `\dv`: List views
– `\df+ __function__` : Show function SQL code.
– `\x`: Pretty-format query results instead of the not-so-useful ASCII tables

User Related:
– `\du`: List users
– `\du __username__`: List a username if present.
– `create role __test1__`: Create a role with an existing username.
– `create role __test2__ noinherit login password __passsword__;`: Create a role with username and password.
– `set role __test__;`: Change role for current session to `__test__`.
– `grant __test2__ to __test1__;`: Allow `__test1__` to set its role as `__test2__`.

## Configuration

– Service management commands:
sudo service postgresql stop
sudo service postgresql start
sudo service postgresql restart

– Changing verbosity & querying Postgres log:

1) First edit the config file, set a decent verbosity, save and restart postgres:
sudo vim /etc/postgresql/9.3/main/postgresql.conf

# Uncomment/Change inside:
log_min_messages = debug5
log_min_error_statement = debug5
log_min_duration_statement = -1

sudo service postgresql restart
2) Now you will get tons of details of every statement, error, and even background tasks like VACUUMs
tail -f /var/log/postgresql/postgresql-9.3-main.log
3) How to add user who executed a PG statement to log (editing `postgresql.conf`):
log_line_prefix = ‘%t %u %d %a ‘

## Handy queries
– `SELECT * FROM pg_proc WHERE proname=’__procedurename__’`: List procedure/function
– `SELECT * FROM pg_views WHERE viewname=’__viewname__’;`: List view (including the definition)
– `SELECT pg_size_pretty(pg_total_relation_size(‘__table_name__’));`: Show DB table space in use
– `SELECT pg_size_pretty(pg_database_size(‘__database_name__’));`: Show DB space in use
– `show statement_timeout;`: Show current user’s statement timeout
– `SELECT * FROM pg_indexes WHERE tablename=’__table_name__’ AND schemaname=’__schema_name__’;`: Show table indexes
– Get all indexes from all tables of a schema:
t.relname AS table_name,
i.relname AS index_name,
a.attname AS column_name
pg_class t,
pg_class i,
pg_index ix,
pg_attribute a,
pg_namespace n
t.oid = ix.indrelid
AND i.oid = ix.indexrelid
AND a.attrelid = t.oid
AND a.attnum = ANY(ix.indkey)
AND t.relnamespace = n.oid
AND n.nspname = ‘kartones’
– Execution data:
– Queries being executed at a certain DB:
SELECT datname, application_name, pid, backend_start, query_start, state_change, state, query
FROM pg_stat_activity
WHERE datname=’__database_name__’;
– Get all queries from all dbs waiting for data (might be hung):
SELECT * FROM pg_stat_activity WHERE waiting=’t’
– Currently running queries with process pid:
SELECT pg_stat_get_backend_pid(s.backendid) AS procpid,
pg_stat_get_backend_activity(s.backendid) AS current_query
FROM (SELECT pg_stat_get_backend_idset() AS backendid) AS s;

– `CAST (column AS type)` or `column::type`
– `’__table_name__’::regclass::oid`: Get oid having a table name

Query analysis:
– `EXPLAIN __query__`: see the query plan for the given query
– `EXPLAIN ANALYZE __query__`: see and execute the query plan for the given query
– `ANALYZE [__table__]`: collect statistics

## Tools
– [pg-top]( `top` for PG. `sudo apt-get install ptop` + `pg_top`
– [Unix-like reverse search in psql](
$ echo “bind “^R” em-inc-search-prev” > $HOME/.editrc
$ source $HOME/.editrc